Friday, March 13, 2020
History of the Iran-Contra Scandal The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal that exploded in 1986, during President Ronald Reagans second term, when it came to light that senior administration officials had secretly- and in violation of existing laws- arranged for the sale of arms to Iran in return for IranÃ¢â¬â¢s promise to help secure the release of a group of Americans being held hostage in Lebanon. Proceeds from the arms sales were then secretly, and again illegally, funneled to the Contras, a group of rebels fighting the Marxist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. Iran-Contra Affair Key Takeaways The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal that played out between 1985 and 1987, during the second term of President Ronald Reagan.The scandal revolved around a plan by Regan administration officials to secretly and illegally sell arms to Iran, with funds from the sales funneled to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow NicaraguaÃ¢â¬â¢s Cuban-controlled, Marxist Sandinista government.In return for the arms sold to them, the Iranian government had vowed to help secure the release of a group of Americans being held hostage in Lebanon by the terrorist group Hezbollah.While several top White House officials, including National Security Council member Colonel Oliver North were convicted due to their participation in the Iran-Contra affair, no evidence that President Reagan had planned or authorized the arms sales was ever revealed. Background The Iran-Contra scandal grew out of President ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to eradicate Communism worldwide. So supportive of the Contra rebelsÃ¢â¬â¢ struggle to overthrow NicaraguaÃ¢â¬â¢s Cuban-backed Sandinista government, Reagan had called them, Ã¢â¬Å"the moral equivalent of our Founding Fathers.Ã¢â¬ Operating under the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"Reagan DoctrineÃ¢â¬ of 1985, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency was already training and assisting the Contras and similar anti-Communist insurgencies in several countries. However, between 1982 and 1984, the U.S. Congress had twice specifically prohibited providing further funding to the Contras. The convoluted path of the Iran-Contra scandal began as a covert operation to free seven American hostages who had been held in Lebanon since the state-sponsored Iranian terrorist group Hezbollah had kidnapped them in 1982. The initial plan was to have AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s ally Israel ship weapons to Iran, thus bypassing an existing U.S. arms embargo against Iran. The United States would then resupply Israel with arms and receive payment from the Israeli government. In return for the weapons, the Iranian government promised to help free the Hezbollah-held American hostages. However, in late 1985, U.S. National Security Council member Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North secretly devised and implemented a revision to the plan whereby a part of the proceeds from the weapons sales to Israel would secretly- and in violation of the congressional ban- be diverted to Nicaragua to help the insurgent Contras. What Was the Reagan Doctrine? The term Ã¢â¬Å"Reagan DoctrineÃ¢â¬ arose from President ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s 1985 State of the Union address, in which he called on Congress and all Americans to stand up to the Communist-ruled Soviet Union, or as he called it the Ã¢â¬Å"Evil Empire.Ã¢â¬ He told Congress: Ã¢â¬Å"We must stand by all our democratic allies, and we must not break faith with those who are risking their lives- on every continent, from Afghanistan to Nicaragua- to defy Soviet-supported aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth.Ã¢â¬ Scandal Discovered The public first learned of the Iran-Contra arms deal shortly after a transport aircraft carrying 50,000 AK-47 assault rifles and other military weapons was shot down over Nicaragua on November 3, 1986. The aircraft had been operated by Corporate Air Services, a front for Miami, Florida-based Southern Air Transport. One of the planeÃ¢â¬â¢s three surviving crew members, Eugene Hasenfus, stated in a press conference held in Nicaragua that he and his two crewmates had been hired by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency to deliver the arms to the Contras. After the Iranian government confirmed agreeing to the arms deal, President Reagan appeared on national television from the Oval Office on November 13, 1986, stating of the deal: Ã¢â¬Å"My purpose was to send a signal that the United States was prepared to replace the animosity between [the U.S. and Iran] with a new relationship Ã¢â¬ ¦ At the same time we undertook this initiative, we made clear that Iran must oppose all forms of international terrorism as a condition of progress in our relationship. The most significant step which Iran could take, we indicated, would be to use its influence in Lebanon to secure the release of all hostages held there.Ã¢â¬ Oliver North Ã The scandal grew worse for the Reagan administration after it became clear that National Security Council member Oliver North had ordered the destruction and concealment of documents related to the Iran and Contra arms sale. In July 1987, North testified before a televised hearing of a special joint congressional committee created to investigate the Iran-Contra scandal. North admitted that he had lied when describing the deal to Congress in 1985, stating that he had viewed the Nicaraguan Contras as Ã¢â¬Å"freedom fightersÃ¢â¬ engaged in a war against the Communist Sandinista government. Based on his testimony, North was indicted on a series of federal felony charges and ordered to stand trial. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North Testifies to Senate on Iran-Contra Scandal. Ã Getty Images Archive During the 1989 trial, NorthÃ¢â¬â¢s secretary Fawn Hall testified that she had helped her boss shred, alter, and remove official United States National Security Council documents from his White House office. North testified that he had ordered the shredding of Ã¢â¬Å"someÃ¢â¬ documents in order to protect the lives of certain individuals involved in the arms deal. On May 4, 1989, North was convicted of bribery and obstruction of justice and was sentenced to a three-year suspended prison term, two years on probation, $150,000 in fines, and 1,200 hours of community service. However, on July 20, 1990, his conviction was vacated when a federal court of appeals ruled that NorthÃ¢â¬â¢s televised 1987 testimony to Congress may have improperly influenced the testimony of some witnesses at his trial. After taking office in 1989, President George H.W. Bush issued presidential pardons to six other individuals who had been convicted for their involvement in the scandal.Ã Had Reagan Ordered the Deal? Reagan made no secret of his ideological support of the ContraÃ¢â¬â¢s cause. However, the question of whether he ever approved Oliver NorthÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to provide weapons to the rebels remains largely unanswered. The investigation into the exact nature of ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement was hindered by the destruction of related White House correspondence as ordered by Oliver North. In early 1986, the Reagan-appointed Tower Commission, chaired by Republican Texas Senator John Tower, found no evidence that Reagan himself was aware of the details or extent of the operation, and that the initial sale of arms to Iran had not been a criminal act. In a televised address on March 4, 1987, Reagan, however, took responsibility for the scandal, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"what began as a strategic opening to Iran deteriorated, in its implementation, into trading arms for hostages.Ã¢â¬ President Reagan's television address on the Iran-Contra Affair, 1987. National Archives While his image suffered as a result of the Iran-Contra scandal, ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity recovered, allowing him to complete his second term in 1989 with the highest public approval rating of any president since Franklin D. Roosevelt. Sources and Suggested References Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, United States. Congress. House Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran.Reagan, Ronald. August 12, 1987. Address to the Nation on the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy, The American Presidency ProjectNever Had an InklingÃ¢â¬â¢: Reagan Testifies He Doubts Contragate Ever Happened. Videotape Transcript Released. Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. February 22, 1990.Ã The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On, The National Security Archive (George Washington University), 2006Ã Tower commission report excerpts, The Tower Commission Report (1986)
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Ethical Issue Paper - Vitamin K - Essay Example The Vitamin K in breast milk is also very low and thus after the birth of babies, even though breastfeeding is taking place, Vitamin K is at a low level for several weeks and only attains its required level when the alimentary canal bacteria start generating Vitamin K for the baby. Some babies are fed with infant formula that contains Vitamin K but even though this takes place, the level of Vitamin K remains at a low level for some days (E Hey, 2003). Vitamin k is thus recommended to be administered on the new born babies to increase its levels in their body (American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, 2003). The contention now is on how to administer Vitamin K. Which method is safe and well known to have desirable results in preventing hemorrhagic disease of the newborn? The method that has been in use was intramuscular administration or administration through injection. It however has come to be questioned on its safety on babies and its possibility that it woul d be causing cancer and leukemia in the new born babies who are given vitamin K using the intramuscular administration (American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, 2003). This led to the introduction of oral administration in some countries. The decision however on the method to be used has somehow been determined by the consent from the parent. Where the nurse administering Vitamin K is left to decide, then ethical decision making comes in. As a nurse, consideration has to be put on both methods. Their effectiveness and on the safety. This paper, with the help of research by other writers, will show the dilemma faced in making the ethical decision of the method to use in administering Vitamin K. Summary of the Issue Concerns have however been raised on either the safeness or effectiveness of both intramuscular administration and oral administration of Vitamin K. The first that has been in use is the intramuscular administration. This method has been recorded to have good results and according to study in Australia, there was no registered case of bleeding (HDN) in the children who were given Vitamin K using intramuscular administration (Khambalia et al., A.Z., 2012).. A similar test was carried out testing the effectiveness of oral administration. Most of the infant who received Vitamin K were safe from HDN but a number of them were registered to experience bleeding probably because of HDN. From this you can depict that the efficiency of oral administration is not as effective as using intramuscular administration. This can be due to several reasons that would render oral administration non-effective. The first is that in case of vomiting in the child, to whom Vitamin K is administered to, the dose needed will not have been met and hence the child will be prone to bleeding. The other is that this method is dependent on the parent compliance to bring the child back for the second dose 3-5 days after the first dose given after child birth. T his would mean that if a parent fails to comply with this say because they forget, then the dosage will not be as expected but when it comes to intramuscular administration, the dosage is given once, immediately after birth of the child. This means that the complete dose is administered at once. These two factors may lead to lack of proper dosage if the oral administration is used and thus full protection from HDN may not be in
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Street Food Sellers - Research Paper Example There are numerous people who sell street food in developing countries and mostly the goods are homogenous is nature , each person will sell the exact same good which is going to be a perfect substitute to market competitors. A large number of producers is also going to determine that one producer or consumer cannot influence the market price. A producer who wishes to increase the price cannot do so as consumers are going to shift to the other business selling street food at cheaper rates. A single consumer cannot influence market price as well, they can signal to the producer as to how much to produce but one consumer cannot dictate market price. The producer has to keep equilibrium at the efficient output. The producer must minimize costs in order to sell at a competitive price in the market. Each producer has a small market share due to the perfectly competitive nature of the goods, one producer will not be able to secure a larger market share due to the same reason it will not be able to affect market price. ... The reason why Street Food sellers in developing countries is an example of perfect competition is due to the fact that the business face the same characteristics of perfect competition and hence is declared to fall under that category. Monopoly Ã¢â¬â A monopoly is a market structure which is characterized by the domination of one firm in the market share of good producing differentiated goods with significant barriers to entry. An example of a monopoly business is South West Gas in Arizona which is a monopoly due to the reason that it falls under the same characteristics as that of a monopoly as it is shown below Since it is the only gas provider in the region the market is dominated by the business .Some characteristics include that there is an in-elastic demand for its product, for example if South West Gas decides that it is going to increase the price of its goods the consumption of that good will not decrease due to a lack of substitutes of that good. There are no or very fe w substitutes of gas, so the business can afford to charge high prices without the fear of the consumers shifting to an alternate good. There is no interdependence on other firms / competitors since it is the largest and only gas provider in the region it does not have to account for the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s actions before devising a market strategy. There are numerous barriers to entry in the market , one due to the economies of scale enjoyed by the monopoly the new firm ( even if it enters the market) cannot rival South West Gas for prices as the monopoly has the advantages of lower costs. Another barrier to entry is the obvious utilization of gas resources in the land by the
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Assessment Process Essay Introduction Assessment is the process of judging a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s skills and knowledge within the work place or training environment, set against the National Occupational Standards. (NOS) These standards reflect best practice in the particular industry. Learners will be assessed as either competent or not yet competent and their evidence will be judged as sufficient or insufficient for them to have reached these standards. see more:identify ways of supporting an individual to make informed choices The assessor will work closely with the learner and work towards a National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Note NVQs in the UK are now progressively being replaced with the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) NVQÃ¢â¬â¢s are typically arranged in levels which are structured into units each unit carries a number of credits, they are competency based i. e. they require the demonstration of abilities to perform a standard of job, both in skills and an understanding of what the learner does and why. Learners can undertake an NVQ at any time, they will be required to attend an initial induction session within which the learner will choose units to work on. Each unit covers a general area of work and carries a certain number of credits and outcomes. Learners are required to complete a number of mandatory units and then optional units are chosen to achieve the required number of credits. Learners will have regular meetings in the workplace, with their assessor to discuss evidence criteria, progress and set targets. The Assessment Process The assessment process can be broken down into the following sections :- 1 Recruitment, induction initial assessment Once the learner is recruited and inducted into the programme an Initial assessment is carried out. This involves the identification and collection of a wide range of information to enable the assessor to develop an effective, efficient, personalised and positive training programme for the learner. The assessorÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to aid the learner to gain an overview of the qualifications he or she hopes to gain and to plan their route to achieving it involving selecting the right units, in the right order and identifying any extra support they might need. Information collected during the initial assessment includes:- * Social/ethnic background. * Learning difficulties, disabilities and health or personal difficulties. * Previous abilities, experience, education, qualifications and achievements (RPL) * Learner strengths. * Areas for development Ã¢â¬â weaknesses. * Current job role. * Learners short and long term ambitions, goals, needs and expectations. * Time resources. * Available facilities and support. It is the assessorÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to determine the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and commitment and to ensure that he/she is fully involved in the process. Failure to carry out a thorough initial assessment can result in guiding the learner to unsuitable options, the training taking too long and wasting time, effort and resources, leading to frustrated learners and resulting in a high rate of Ã¢â¬Å"drop outsÃ¢â¬ . 2 Ã¢â¬â Planning Before the assessment of a learner begins, it is important to make a plan of how the assessor will carry out the assessment. The overall aim is to plan for the types of evidence needed to inform the assessorÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions. A holistic approach is important here i. e. the assessment process needs to be planned around what the learner is doing, then linking these activities to the occupational standards, not the other way round Important for learners in the working environment. Valuable steps for the assessor during planning are to :- 1. Ensure an overview of all the relevant units within the learners chosen path, taking into account the results of the initial assessment. 2. Have all necessary documents concerning the learners existing achievements to hand 3. Gauge the level at which the learner is currently working. 4. List day to day activities, responsibilities and functions and link units to these key activities It is vital that the learner is involved at every step of the process, and crucial that all details are agreed by him/her especially the learning goals and time scales. Assessment plans The results of the planning stage should be recorded by the assessor on a document called The Assessment Plan. Each assessment plan should record :- * Who is being assessed, where and when. * What activity is being assessed, and the units for which the evidence will be provided * What assessment methods will be used, how they will be recorded and where the evidence will be stored after the assessment. * When and how feedback will be given. * Who else needs to be informed of, or involved in the assessment. * What the arrangements are for reviewing progress and updating arrangements for assessment. * Anything the learner needs to bring on the day of assessment. 3 Ã¢â¬â The fundamental responsibilities of the assessor Good assessment practice relies greatly on an honest and trustworthy relationship between the assessor and the learner, vital for successful and credible results. Credibility in assessment is guaranteed by ensuring that all assessment practices and procedures are governed by the following set of principles :- Fairness, transparency objectivity. The assessor must :- * Give the learner the best opportunity to demonstrate their learning and knowledge and the assessment process must not hinder or advantage the learner in any way. * Consider the needs and characteristics of the learner. * Provide transparency i. e. communicate clearly with the learner to ensure he/she is fully informed about, understands and is able to participate in the process. * Inform of appeal opportunities and procedures. * Not discriminate on sex, race or disability (the equality act 2010) Validity. Validity is a measure of the accuracy of an assessment or is the assessment actually doing what it is supposed to be doing? Each assessment should be designed to allow learners to produce the evidence to show that they have the required knowledge, understanding and skills for the qualification they are aiming for. An assessment is valid when it :- * Is appropriate for the purpose, e. g. a practical assessment should be used to assess practical skills, a written assessment that asks learners to write about a skill rather than demonstrate it would have low validity. * Allows learners to produce sufficient evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills that are required to satisfy standards of the qualification. * Allows assessors to make reliable assessment decisions for all learners. Reliability Reliability is a measure of the degree of consistency with which a learners responses to an assessment are judged. To be reliable, assessment decisions on learners performance must be consistent across all assessors for all candidates undertaking the same assessment task. In any assessment system, procedures have to be put in place to ensure this. Assessment decisions are reliable when :- * They are generated by valid assessments which are produced under conditions of assessment that are consistently applied. * They are consistent across the range of assessors applying the assessment in different situations, contexts and with different learners. * They are taken on the basis of clearly-defined standards of performance. * The authenticated work of the learner is being assessed. * They are consistent over time. The relationship between validity and reliability Validity and reliability are interdependent. An assessment that produces inconsistent results cannot provide valid information about a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement. On the other hand, highly consistent results do not necessarily indicate high validity, since the test may be inappropriate for the competence being assessed. For example, the results of a maths test involving routine calculations may have a high degree of validity for indicating arithmetical skills but a low degree of validity for indicating problem-solving abilities. High validity and high reliability are more likely to be achieved when assessors :- * Measure learners against outcomes of learning which have clearly defined performance levels. * Use assessment instruments that are appropriate to the outcomes. * Minimise subjectivity. 4 Learning and development The learner undergoes training and development over time and :- * Acquires skills and knowledge. * Practises and applies what they have learned. * Starts to perform to the standards. * Consistently performs to the standards under a variety of conditions at work. Assessment for learning takes place at regular intervals to see how the learner is progressing. Learners are given feedback on their performance, targets are adjusted and further training and development are arranged as necessary. Formative Assessment Formative assessment is an informal process used by assessors and learners to recognise and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning during the learning. It is a method of assessing for learning as opposed to assessment of learning (summative assessment) It takes place during the assessment, is an integral part of the learning process and involves the assessor indentifying the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s present standard of abilities and work. It provides feedback which supplies suggestions on how the learner can develop and helps the assessor to modify the learning process to suit the learner on an ongoing basis. Advantages :- * Provides the learner with a Ã¢â¬Å"safe placeÃ¢â¬ allowing him/her to make mistakes and learn from them as opposed to the penalties of summative assessment. * Guides assessor into making decisions about future instruction enabling them to keep track of progress and adapt training to the needs of learners. * Improves learner motivation and achievement. * Engages the learner in self assessment. * Facilitates continuous improvement for both learner and assessor. Summative assessment Summative assessment focuses on learning completed, happens after a learning period and comes in a form of formal testing of what has been learned to produce marks or grades. Advantages:- * It acts as a formal measurement and evaluation of a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and achievement after instruction. * Enables learners to enhance their achievements. * Provides rigorous, reliable and valid verification of a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. * Develops learners as active participants in their own assessment, enabling them to develop as independent learners and effective professionals. 5 Ã¢â¬â Assessment methods There are many assessment methods available to the assessor. It is important to choose methods which are fair, valid and most effectively assess the objectives of the unit. See table below which lists the key methods and their application METHOD| DESCRIPTION| APPLICATION| Observation| Watching learners perform in the workplace or simulated environment | To see learners demonstrate their practical skills as they do their job activities. Most standards specify observation as a mandatory method| Examining or evaluating work products| The outcomes or products of a learners work activity or task| In conjunction with observation,questioning or professional discussion Ã¢â¬â must be the result of real work| Questioning| Using a range of questioning techniques either spoken or written| To find out whether the learner has learned necessary knowledge| Discussion| A conversation in which learners describe and reflect on their performance and knowledge in relation to the requirements of the standards| To test the validity and reliability of a learners evidence. Can often be used to cover a range of work activities and units. An affective way to test deep rather than superficial learning| Evidence from others (witness testimony)| Another personÃ¢â¬â¢s account of what the learner has done, usually to confirm existing knowledge from assessors own observation| To support an observation and to confirm consistent performance over time. May be used in conjunction with RPL to verify a learners claim to existing knowledge and skills| Learner statements| The learners account of what they have been doing in relation to the standards to be achieved| To support consistent performance over time. Or for evidence of reflection on, and improvements in, performance | Projects, assignments and case studies| Assessing the outcomes of case studies, projects and assignments that the learner has undertaken as part of their vocational learning against specified criteria| In conjunction with questioning or discussion (although projects and assignments set as part of the learning process provide no evidence of competence)| Simulation| Using a replica of the work environment to assess competence. When it is impossible or unsafe for the learner to perform in a real-life work environment| Skills tests| Formal testing of skills under test conditions| When it forms part of the requirements for independent assessment in certain qualifications. Usually where the learners need to acquire a range of technical skills before they can perform them in the work environment, or safety related knowledge and skill requirements. | Recognition of prior learning| Assessment of a learners existing level of knowledge and skill in relation to the standards| To match prior learning to units in a qualification so the leaner doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to repeat what they have already learned. Without detailed assessment it can be difficult to judge whether prior claims constitute valid, authentic and current evidence. | 6 Ã¢â¬â Evidence All the different methods of assessment have one thing in common the collection of evidence. Evidence can be defined as The proof produced by a learner that shows that he/she complies with the requirements of the criteria of the standards they wish to gain credits for. Evidence can come from a variety of sources, it is the responsibility of the assessor to ensure that the evidence collected is valid i. e. is authentic, sufficient and current before he/she can make an accurate judgement of the learners competence. Authenticity of evidence * Can the evidence be attributed to the learner? * Is the evidence the learners own work? The assessor has to verify that the evidence is the learners own work therefore the learner must be able to explain and substantiate the evidence produced. Sufficiency of evidence * Is there enough evidence to meet all criteria needed to judge the learner as competent? * Is the assessor confident that the learner has the relevant level of knowledge and skills and that performance can be repeated? Rather than focussing on quantity of evidence the assessor needs to ensure that assessment decisions are based on quality of evidence that demonstrates the learner is competent. To be sufficient evidence must show that :- * The learner has attained all of the relevant skills and knowledge outlined in the standards. * The learner has shown competence over a period of time. * The learner is confident to repeatedly demonstrate skills and knowledge. Currency of evidence * Is the evidence related to current competence? The assessor needs to judge the evidence as up to date with the latest developments and environmental factors such as legislation and must assure that it is the most recent available, especially important when assessing prior learning.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Chaucer's The Wife of Bath ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s character, the Wife of Bath, grabs the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention immediately as she sets the stage for giving an account of her beliefs on love and life: Ã¢â¬Å"Housbondes at chirche dore I have had five.Ã¢â¬ Because of her blunt honesty at the very beginning of her Prologue, the reader senses that the Wife of Bath feels no shame and carries no regrets about her many marriages. This is confirmed when the Wife proclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"Of whiche I have piked out the beste.Ã¢â¬ She displays two attitudes throughout the piece: living life to the fullest and loving to gossip about her past. We see this first attitude as the Wife looks back on her life and says, Ã¢â¬Å"But Lord Crist, whan that it remembreth me / Upon my youthe and on my jolitee, / It tikleth me aboute myn herte roote Ã¢â¬â / Unto this day it dooth myn herte boote / That I have had my world as in my time.Ã¢â¬ The Wife expresses joy over the life she has lived and seems completely satisfied with all that took place. Much of the history she entrusts to her fellow pilgrims details her sexual drive. Her sexual appetite represents her great desire for vivid living. The Wife is not bitter about any of her marriages. Even when the husbands seemed bothered by the fact that she acted like the man in the relationships in that she was demanding, controlling and sexually dominant, she did not mind. She actually reveled in the fact that she had complete control in four of her five marriages. This sexual appetite parallels her attitude of enjoyment and pleasure in life. Instead of feeling shameful about her overactive sex drive, she simply said, Ã¢â¬Å"God bade us for to wexe and mulitplye.Ã¢â¬ She does not feel disgraced by her actions; instead, she sees herself as simply following GodÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. Additionally, she feels that her sexual appetite is sanctioned by God because, Ã¢â¬Å"He saide th at to be wedded is no sinne: / Bet is to be wedded than to brinne.Ã¢â¬ Because she is married, she is allowed to pursue her desires to their full force and feel no shame because she is not burning with a forbidden passion for a man that is not her husband. The second attitude expressed is that of a love for gossiping about herself.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In the opening paragraph of Kay BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s AstronomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife, Boyle depicts a woman who is oppressed of an equal, intelligent conversation with her spouse. Mrs. Ames sees to all matters of running a successful household, while the astronomer sleeps late and is a loner. His profession makes it clear that he spends a lot of time in thought and alone in the dark at night. Boyle explains, Ã¢â¬Å"He was a man of other things, a dreamer. At times he lay still for hours, at others he sat upon the roof behind his telescope, or wandered down the pathway to the road and out across the mountains.Ã¢â¬ Since the astronomer is often in his own world, Mrs. Ames is expected to cater to his needs. Ã¢â¬Å"That man might be each time the new arching wave, and woman the undertow that sucked him back, were things she been told by his silence were so.Ã¢â¬ This quote exemplifies how involved in his work the astronomer is. Whenever he is on the brink of a brilliant idea, she interrupts his train of thought. Therefore, she is the undertow that breaks the force of the arching wave. The astronomer was obviously obsessed with his work leaving little time to act as a husband. The marriage appears to be one that compromises Mrs. AmesÃ¢â¬â¢s, and perhaps the astronomerÃ¢â¬â¢s, happiness. This is where the plumber is introduced and Mrs. Ames begins to find stimulation outside her marriage. Something as simple as a conversation with a plumber about a stopped elbow is enough to trigger an awakening in Mrs. Katherine Ames. When Mrs. Ames realized that the plumber was talking about something she understood, she in turn realized that her marital problems were not the result of a division between the sexes; instead, she avalid one. She is not happy with a man who wants to go Ã¢â¬Å"upÃ¢â¬ and that she rather prefers Ã¢â¬Å"downÃ¢â¬ . Through meeting the plumber, she recognizes this and is Ã¢â¬Å"called to go downÃ¢â¬ . Mrs. Ames is seeking happiness and someone in whom she can relate. She needs something that speaks to her, something that means something to her, and she wants to change. Mrs. Ames feels a connection to the plumber. He involves her in his theory and she develops her own thoughts. Where her husband treats her as unimportant, the plumber makes her Ã¢â¬Å"bewildered that it should be a man who had spoken to her soÃ¢â¬ . The astronomerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is trapped in a lifelessÃ marriage and somewhere there appears a line in which she is not sure if she should cross. The plumber has made her feel like she thought no man ever could. The point is simple; Mrs. Ames has desired respect over the years and finally along comes a man that gives her that much needed self-dignity. When oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings are taken advantage of or neglected, it is natural for that person to begin to look for a beau who will nurture those needs. Whether this is an act that is carried out subconsciously or intently does not matter. In the case of Mrs. Ames it is happening without her permission, but even as she tries to deny her inner feelings and needs she finds them leaking through, like water from a pipe, and the reader begins to wonder if maybe the plumber wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t there just to fix a dripping wash-basin.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Feedback is imperative for any and every member of a team. Feedback is what allows individuals to improve and learn from their own mistakes. Constructive criticism is an instructive open door for both the sender and the recipient. The initial phase in evaluation is to explain the objective or the reason behind a criticism. Qualitative feedback is unique in the way in which it provides an opportunity for individuals to evaluate their weaknesses and further improve upon their strengths. This ultimately leads to greater success. Qualitative feedback follows a process beginning with offering positive feedback, followed by constructive criticism, and finally an action plan to improve the teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. Ultimately, this provides a clear image of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s team, which allows individuals to move forward. Positive feedback can be used to acclaim or show appreciation. For instance, it is an opportunity to tell the beneficiary that a thought or action he or she has or does is extraordinary. For example, if he or she contributes meaningfully in a meeting or works diligently on a project, positive feedback can be used as a reward for good work. This can help build confidence and continuity amongst a team. The more rewarded and confident a group feels, the more likely they are to succeed again on the next project. The opportunities to offer positive feedback vary greatly. Such feedback can be given for strong organizational skills, such as planning ahead and completing assignmentsShow MoreRelatedEvaluating A Multidimensional Trust Model For Computing User Feedback Comments Essay1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbased on comments that buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ express in the feedback section, I have proposed CommTrust for evaluation by mining the feedback comments. My contribution include: (1) I propose a multidimensional trust model for computing user feedback comments; (2) I also propose an Algorithm for Mining Feedback Comments for Dimension Ratings, Combining Techniques of NLP, LDA and PLSA. To the best of my knowledge, I am the pioneer on trust evaluation by mining feedback comments. 1. Introduction IN the recentRead MoreEvaluation, Feedback And Rewards774 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Evaluation, Feedback Rewards Organizations to include my very own use rewards to attract more employees, retain current employees, and motivate others. These are generally the cause for rewards in businesses. Rewards can vary from organization to organization and also the nature of the award. In order to effectively distribute rewards in an equitable manner, a system for performance evaluation must first be developed and implemented. To effectively maximize the effectiveness of the businessRead MoreError Types For Corrective Feedback1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesError types for corrective feedback. Research on the error types that need corrective feedback has reported mixed findings, indicating that while corrective feedback influenced the improvement of linguistic knowledge, its effects depended on the types of errors. Ferris (2006) categorized errors into five major groups (verb errors, noun errors, article errors, lexical errors, and sentence errors) and reported that students who received feedback only red uced the incidents of verb errors. Van BeuningenRead MoreElements Of Formative Assessment987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe term Ã¢â¬Ëformative evaluationÃ¢â¬â¢ in 1967, but Benjamin Bloom elaborated upon its distinction from summative assessment: Ã¢â¬ËQuite in contrast is the use of formative evaluation to provide feedback and correctives at each stage in the teaching-learning process. 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During the workshop, no negative feedback was given and all teachers were beingRead MoreEvaluation Of A Performance Evaluation Based On The Performance Of The Individual884 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor instance, loyalty, dynamism, leadership sociability, creativity are characteristics required in wide variety of jobs. This type of evaluation is popular, although it remains widely criticized (McGregor, 1957). Many specialists believe that personality traits are unobservable, therefore, difficult to define and measure. These can cause bias in the evaluation and shorten the validity because Ã¢â¬Å"the respect we hold for t he inherent value of the individual leaves us distresses when we must take responsibilityRead MorePerformance Appraisal : Employee Evaluation Essay1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesevaluating employee job performance. The employee evaluation consists of regular reviews at different intervals every six months or yearly reviews. The performance appraisal includes performance training, determining who will evaluate employee performance, evaluating job performance, and communicating results to employees. By conducting a performance evaluation, it can increase understanding of improving the problems that occur within the performance evaluations. In this research paper, it summarizes theRead MoreAn Assessment Of Performance Feedback Transparency978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin Public, Criticize in Private? An Assessment of Performance Feedback Transparency in a Classroom Setting,Ã¢â¬ authors Seevers, Rowe, and Skinner (2014) raise the question of whether a managerial practice to feedback would al so work in the world of education. Vince Lombardi suggested that positive feedback should be delivered in public, while negative feedback should be handled in private. However, as educators, most feedback, positive or negative, should be given in a private setting. The articleRead MorePolicy Process Essay1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 2011 Bette Sorrento Part II: The Policy Process Part I of the policy process involves, the formulation phase, the evaluation or legislation phase, and the implementation phase. The formulation phase is the stage where the all the information, ideas, concepts, and researches from various people, organizations, and interest groups are taken. The legislation or evaluation process is defined as the stage where deliberations, discussions, debates, and justifications are done. The implementationRead MoreUsing Assessment and Feedbackas a Teacher Essay1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmasters the same core principles, curriculum requirements and skills. Four of the basic practices: assessment, evaluation, grading and feedback; all present a set of unique challenges in their own right. In education there seems to be many debates over the meaning these terms. Most do not have Ã¢â¬Å"clearly distinctive definitions...Assessment is often referred to as the gathering of data, evaluation is the judging of merits, and grading is assigning values to l etters or numbers for reporting purposesÃ¢â¬ (Assessment